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November 22nd is the 27th anniversary of a European Parliament resolution condemning Operation Gladio. For decades, secret armies in over a dozen NATO countries carried out terrorist attacks to influence the political landscape and manipulate elections. In this article I look back at Gladio, highlighting the damage it did and the problems these operations cause for democracies. Examining the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the intelligence failures that led to 9/11 I ask whether NATO’s secret armies were truly shut down at the end of the Cold War.

Full article.